中风 is the fourth leading cause of death and the leading cause of disability in the United States. 当中风发生时, a blood vessel in the brain becomes blocked or bursts, sometimes causing permanent brain injury or even death. 然而, prompt treatment and follow-up care may protect brain cells and help patients lead healthy, 富有成效的生活.
- 缺血性中风 This type of stroke accounts for about 80 to 85 percent of all strokes in the United States. With ischemic stroke, the blood supply to a part of the brain becomes blocked. This prevents oxygen and nutrients from reaching brain cells. Within a few minutes, these cells may begin to die.
The underlying cause for this type of obstruction is usually atherosclerosis, a condition in which plaque or fatty deposits within the wall of the arteries in the brain and neck can lead to obstruction or narrowing. These fatty deposits can cause cerebral thrombosis or cerebral embolism. With a cerebral thrombosis, a blood clot forms within the blood vessel. Cerebral embolisms are clots that can form at another location in the circulatory system, break loose from an artery wall or from the inside lining of the heart, travel through the brain's blood vessels and can lodge in an artery in the brain.
- 出血中风 With hemorrhagic stroke a blood vessel within the brain leaks or ruptures and bleeds into the surrounding brain tissue. 这被称为脑出血. The blood can accumulate and exert pressure on the surrounding tissue. High blood pressure is a common cause of intracerebral hemorrhage. In a subarachnoid hemorrhage, blood leaks under the lining of the brain. This is often caused by a small bubble on an artery known as an aneurysm.
- 家族病史 The risk of having a stroke is higher for people whose parents or siblings have had a stroke.
- 年龄 中风 risk increases with age — doubling every 10 years after age 55.
- 性别 Before age 55, men are more likely than women to have strokes. After 55, the risk is the same for men and women. 然而, women are more likely than men to die of stroke.
- 既往中风，短暂性脑缺血发作或心脏病发作史 A person who has had a stroke in the past is at much greater risk for having another one. Risk of stroke after a TIA is greatest within the first 48 to 72 hours. 因此, you should seek immediate medical attention for all acute neurologic changes, 即使他们已经解决了.
- 比赛 African Americans have higher incidence of stroke and a higher risk of death from a stroke than Caucasians do. Asian Americans have higher incidence of hemorrhagic stroke than other ethnic groups.
- 高血压 This is probably the most important modifiable risk factor for stroke. Controlling high blood pressure will greatly reduce your risk of stroke and heart attack.
- 心血管病 充血性心力衰竭, a previous heart attack, a diseased aortic valve and 心房纤颤 所有这些都会增加中风的风险吗.
- 吸烟 The risk of stroke is two to three times greater for smokers versus nonsmokers. The use of oral contraceptives with cigarette smoking greatly increases the risk of stroke.
- 颈动脉疾病 Fatty deposits from atherosclerosis may cause significant narrowing in the carotid arteries. This can limit blood flow to the brain as well as acts as a potential source for cerebral emboli.
- 糖尿病 糖尿病增加中风风险. Many people with diabetes also have high blood pressure, 肥胖和高胆固醇, 会进一步增加他们中风的风险.
- 不良的血液胆固醇水平 High blood levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and low levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol increase stroke risk.
- 肥胖 Excess weight can double the risk of an ischemic stroke.
- 缺乏锻炼和体育锻炼 Both increase the risk of high blood pressure and therefore the risk for stroke. 爬楼梯, 进行轻快的散步, doing some kind of activity for at least 30 minutes every day will help decrease your stroke risk.
- 使用避孕和激素治疗 使用避孕药的妇女, 特别是如果他们吸烟并且年龄超过35岁, 有更高的中风风险. There is also a higher risk of stroke among women using hormone therapy for 更年期.
UCSF offers preventive care and screening for patients at high risk of having a stroke, as well as the latest treatments and tools for patients who have experienced one. Our neurovascular team works with patients' primary care doctors to tailor treatment plans to each person's unique case and overall health.
作为一个利来登录级的中风研究项目, we also apply the latest science and technology to test new treatments that might improve stroke recovery and outcomes. Interested patients may have the opportunity to participate in clinical trials.
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加州大学旧金山分校健康 medical specialists have reviewed this information. It is for educational purposes only and is not intended to replace the advice of your doctor or other health care provider. We encourage you to discuss any questions or concerns you may have with your provider.